We provide complete control system platform (software and hardware) for commercial LNG processes to reduce the energy consumption. For small scale LNG plants like the remote gas liquefaction process, we provide compact, simple and yet effective controls to reduce losses at an affordable and attractive price.
The milled grain is mixed with process water, the pH is adjusted to about 5.8, and an alpha-amylase enzyme is added. The slurry is heated to 180-190°F for 30-45 minutes to reduce viscosity.
The slurry is then pumped through a pressurized jet cooker at 221°F and held for 5 minutes. The mixture is then cooled by an atmospheric or vacuum flash condenser.
After the flash condensation cooling, the mixture is held for 1-2 hours at 180-190°F to give the alpha-amylase enzyme time to break down the starch into short chain dextrins. After pH and temperature adjustment, a second enzyme, glucoamylase, is added as the mixture is pumped into the fermentation tanks.
Once inside the fermentation tanks, the mixture is referred to as mash. The glucoamylase enzyme breaks down the dextrins to form simple sugars. Yeast is added to convert the sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The mash is then allowed to ferment for 50-60 hours, resulting in a mixture that contains about 15% ethanol as well as the solids from the grain and added yeast.
The fermented mash is pumped into a multi-column distillation system where additional heat is added. The columns utilize the differences in the boiling points of ethanol and water to boil off and separate the ethanol. By the time the product stream is ready to leave the distillation columns, it contains about 95% ethanol by volume (190-proof). The residue from this process, called stillage, contains non-fermentable solids and water and is pumped out from the bottom of the columns into the centrifuges.
The first step in one of the coal-to-gas processes is to feed the coal or biomass and the catalyst into the methanation reactor. Inside the reactor, pressurized steam is injected to fluidize the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, unlike the conventional gasification shown above, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal or biomass. These reactions (shown below) catalyzed in a single reactor generate a mixture predominately composed of methane and CO2.
Catalytic Gasification Reactions
C + H2O –> CO + H2
CO + H2O –> H2 + CO2
2H2 + C –> CH4
As part of the overall process the production facility recovers most of the contaminants in coal as useful by-products and, in addition, roughly half the carbon in the coal is captured as a pure CO2 stream suitable for sequestration.
Our BLAST (BaLlistic Anchor Sequence Trajectory) technology can help control, automate and optimize these processes faster, more easily and at a far attractive cost compared to alternative or competitor options.